Independence Day 2022: The day when India, That Is Bharat got out of the shackles of the British Empire rulers and breathed the air of freedom. Motherland got this freedom as a result of many sacrifices and many struggles.
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Independence Day 2022: August 15, 1947, the day when India was freed from the chains of slavery. It was the day when India, That Is Bharat got out of the shackles of the British Empire rulers and breathed the air of freedom. Motherland got this freedom as a result of many sacrifices and many struggles. India completes its 75th years of independence on August 15. The nation is gearing up for the 76th Independence Day celebrations. Let us know the story behind the division in this background.
Pakistan got independence on 14th August 1947 and India got independence on 15th August 1947. And when did the partition take place? On August 17. That is India and Pakistan were formed without separation. The division took place after emergence. There was a big story behind it (Background).
The big story behind it. (India–Pakistan partition)
India-Pakistan partition: According to the Mountbatten Plan announced on June 3, 1947, the partition of the country was confirmed. Punjab and Bengal Assemblies were given the opportunity to decide whether their states should be divided or not.
It was made clear in that plan that if the partition is desired, the Viceroy will set up a boundary commission. Accordingly, the Radcliffe Commission was formed which finalized the boundaries between India and Pakistan.
- London lawyer Radcliffe arrived in India on July 8, 1947, and started drawing the lines of division with the Viceroy on the 10th.
- Before partition, 40% of the country was under colonial rule.
- Due to religious division, the entire problem was concentrated in the states of Punjab and Bengal.
- the task assigned to Radcliffe’s team is to divide the states of Bengal and Punjab, which are spread over both regions and have up to 55% Muslims, between the two countries. For this two boundary commissions were formed under the leadership of Radcliffe.
Between July 16-24, the Bengal Commission conducted the referendum in Kolkata, and between July 21-31, the Punjab Commission conducted the referendum in Lahore.
Opinions were collected in the Sylhet district of Assam from August 4-6. Radcliffe did not directly participate in the plebiscite anywhere. But in these meetings, he arranged to read the information and reports from different groups.
Land Distribution (League conspiracy on cultivated lands)
The Muslim League demanded that Punjab and Bengal should be allotted completely to themselves as the Muslim population was large. It hoped that the fertile lands of Punjab would become theirs. After that, it reduced a bit and agreed to give some areas to India. At first, it was thought that the division should be done only on the basis of religion, but when it came into practice, factors like strategic areas, roads, and irrigation systems were also affected. Some of these have benefited India and some have benefited Pakistan.
- Murshidabad, which has the largest Muslim population, was given to India so that there would be no problem with the waterway from Kolkata to the Ganges.
- The Hindu-majority Khulna district moved to East Pakistan (and later to Bangladesh).
- In order to connect other parts of Northeast India to India, many Muslim majority areas on the borders of Bangladesh were merged into India.
- Even though there are more Muslims in Punjab, the Gurdaspur district was merged with India. The reason is that there are direct routes from here to Kashmir.
- Also, many Hindu majority areas of Sindh were kept in Pakistan.
The erstwhile capital of the Sikh Empire, Lahore, was allotted to India first. But it was removed again on the assumption that Pakistan would never have a big city. As the Congress and Muslim League did not reach a consensus on many issues, Radcliffe finally took the decision he felt and gave his stamp of approval. He divided the vast country into 2 pieces in 4 weeks.
Radcliffe Line – Nowthis
Radcliffe, who completed the division by August 9, showed the first draft to Mountbatten on the same day. As per his instructions, he prepared the final draft of the partition by 12th. Discontent erupted on both sides over the partition. Massive migration continued here and there for 4 months. There were religious clashes in both countries.
- India-Pakistan partition: The Radcliffe Line ultimately divided British India into three parts. They formed India, West Pakistan, and East Pakistan.
“Happy Indian Independence Day”
|Monday, 15 August|
Indian Independence Day 2022